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Hiccup is the formation of a sound with a sudden inhalation as a result of the spontaneous closing of the space between vocal folds owing to the sudden contraction of muscle of diaphragm  that separates the chest cavity and the abdominal cavity from each other. It is known that it is improved with the stimulation of the phrenic nerve.


Hiccup emerges from respiratory muscles, especially the diaphragm. It is called ‘singultus’ in medicine. It has various reasons to occur. Simple hiccups result from mostly the flatus, hot and spicy meals and nervous breakdown. Also, it can be seen in some heart, liver, intestine , pancreas diseases and in pneumonia and pleurisy. In cases lasting more than two hours, it’s necessary to consult a doctor.


Hiccup is a condition that is confronted very often and it ends spontaneously. Rarely, it can last for more than two days or more than one month ( tenacious hiccup). This is more common in adult men than women.


In women, the cause of hiccup is 93 % psychological , while this ratio is as much as 7 % in men. Especially, constant hiccup lasting more than two days and the tenacious hiccup lasting more than one month may be a symptom of a number of diseases  from an underlying infection to cancer . Moreover, sometimes an attack of hiccup may be the only  symptom  of a heart attack. Short-term hiccup attack is generally linked to eating, gastric distension, alcohol and stres more. More than one hundred reasons have been reported to cause the tenacious hiccup.